Urology is the field of medicine that focuses on diseases of the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra) and the male reproductive tract. Some urologists treat general diseases of the urinary tract.

Urologists diagnose and treat diseases of the urinary tract in both men and women. They also diagnose and treat anything involving the reproductive tract in men.

In some cases, they may perform surgery. For example, they may remove cancer or open up a blockage in the urinary tract.

Others specialize in a particular type of urology, such as:

  • female urology, which focuses on conditions of a woman’s reproductive and urinary tract
  • male infertility, which focuses on problems that prevent a man from conceiving a baby with his partner
  • neurourology, which focuses on urinary problems due to conditions of the nervous system
  • pediatric urology, which focuses on urinary problems in children
  • urologic oncology, which focuses on cancers of the urinary system, including the bladder, kidneys, prostate, and testicles
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